Carnuntum (Carnous, Καρνους, in Ancient Greek according to Ptolemy) was a Roman legionary fortress (castrum legionarium) and headquarters of the Pannonian fleet from 50 AD. After the 1st century, it was capital of the Pannonia Superior province. It also became a large city of 50,000 inhabitants. Its impressive remains are situated on the Danube in Lower Austria halfway between Vienna and Bratislava in the Carnuntum Archaeological Park extending over an area of 10 km2 near today’s villages of Petronell-Carnuntum and Bad Deutsch-Altenburg.
In Roman times Carnuntum had a history as a major trading centre for amber, brought from the north to traders who sold it in Italy; the main arm of the Amber Road crossed the Danube at Carnuntum.

As Aelium Carnuntum, the capital of Pannonia Superior, it was made a municipium by Hadrian. Its importance is indicated by the fact that Marcus Aurelius resided there for three years (172–175) during the war against the Marcomanni, and wrote part of his Meditations there. Also Septimius Severus, at the time governor of Pannonia, was proclaimed emperor there by his soldiers (193), to replace Emperor Pertinax, who had been murdered. In the Severan dynasty (193–235) Carnuntum experienced an economic boom, the canabae reaching their maximum size. Caracalla elevated it to colony status as Septimia Colonia Aurelia Antoniana. During the reign of Gallienus, the Pannonians rebelled by electing the usurper Regalianus, who established a mint with coins depicted him and his wife Sulpicia Dryantilla. He was killed shortly afterwards by his own soldiers, probably at Carnuntum.
In 308, during the Civil wars of the Tetrarchy, the Emperor emeritus Diocletian chaired a historic meeting there, the Conference of Carnuntum, with his co-emperors Maximian and Galerius, to solve the rising tensions within the tetrarchy. It brought about freedom of religion for the Roman Empire.

In 374, it was destroyed by Germanic invaders, the Quadi and Iazyges. Although partly restored by Valentinian I, it never regained its former importance, and Vindobona became the chief military centre. During the Barbarian Invasions, Carnuntum was eventually abandoned and used as a cemetery and source of building material for building projects elsewhere. Eventually, its remains became buried and forgotten.

Civilian city

The remains of the civilian city extend around the village Petronell-Carnuntum. There are several places to see in the city: Roman city quarter in the open-air museum, palace ruins, amphitheatre, and Heidentor.

The Roman city ruins are exposed in the open-air museum directly in the present village. One of the ancient houses, called the House of Lucius, has been rebuilt using traditional techniques. It was opened to the public on 1 June 2006. The forum was next to the palace ruins, also referred to as the large public baths.

Some way outside the city was a large amphitheatre, which had room for about 15,000 spectators. A plate with an inscription found at the site claims that this building was the fourth largest amphitheatre in the whole Roman Empire.

Between 354 AD and 361 AD, a huge triumphal monument was erected next to the camp and city. Contemporary reports suggest that Emperor Constantius II had it built to commemorate his victories. When the remains of Carnuntum disappeared after the Migration Period the monument remained as an isolated building in a natural landscape and led Medieval people to believe it was the tomb of a pagan giant. Hence, they called it Heidentor (‘Heathens’ Gate’ or ‘Pagans’ Gate’).

Fortress amphitheatre
The only remaining building of the fortress is an amphitheatre, located just outside the fortress. Today, a small adjacent museum shows the history of gladiators.

Museum Carnuntinum
The archaeological museum Carnuntinum, which is situated in the village of Bad Deutsch-Altenburg on the river Danube, exhibits important archeological finds from the ancient city.

Kunsthistorisches Museum

Wenen Kunsthistorischer Museum>

The collections of the Kunsthistorisches Museum Vienna
– Egyptian and Near Eastern Collection
– Collection of Greek Antiquities
– Roman

Kelten Römer Museum

Kelten Römer Museum Manching

Vor über 2000 Jahren befand sich in Manching eine der größten und bedeutensten Keltenstädte Mitteleuropas. Ca. 100 Jahre nach deren Niedergang ließen sich die Römer hier nieder, um im heutigen Ortsteil Oberstimm ein Militärlager zur Grenzsicherung zu errichten.
Das kelten römer museum manching präsentiert einzigartige Funde aus über 100 Jahren archäologischer Ausgrabungen der weltweit am besten untersuchten Keltenstadt sowie des römischen Kastells und lässt den damaligen Alltag der Menschen – für Groß und Klein – greifbar nah erleben.
Kelten und Römer.


The history of Weißenburg is generally traced back to the Roman fort that was built in the area towards the end of the first century. The settlement, which included Thermae, lay on the border of the Roman Empire and on the Tabula Peutingeriana from the 4th century it had the name Biriciana. Germanic tribes destroyed the fort and settled in what is still the city centre. The first mention of the name Weißenburg is in a deed dating from 867. The city became the seat of a royal residence during the reign of the Franks and according to legend, Charlemagne stayed there to supervise the construction of Fossa Carolina.


The Pompejanum is situated on the high bank of the river Main in the city of Aschaffenburg, in the Lower Franconia region of Bavaria. It is located within sight of Schloss Johannisburg. The Pompejanum is surrounded by a small mediterranean garden, first created in the 19th century when the building was constructed. The Pompejanum was commissioned by King Ludwig I and built in the years 1840-1848 according to the plans of the court architect Friedrich von Gärtner. The Pompejanum was not intended as a royal villa, but as a demonstration that would allow art lovers in Germany to study ancient culture. The building is a symbol for the enthusiasm for antiquity in the 19th century. The villa is a replica of a domus (or town house) in ancient Pompeii, the so-called House of Castor and Pollux (Casa dei Dioscuri), so named after a wall drawing, which was found in the entrance area of the ruined building.

Schloss Wilhelmshöhe Antikensammlung

Die Antikensammlung im Erd- und Untergeschoss von Schloss Wilhelmshöhe, Kassel, bietet einen faszinierenden Überblick über die vergangenen Kulturen im Mittelmeerraum. Die umfangreichen Sammlungsbestände reichen von der Bronzezeit über die Blütezeit Griechenlands bis zum Imperium Romanum. Die rund 800 Exponate – darunter etwa 60 Skulpturen – zeigen die Entwicklung verschiedener antiker Kulturen. Zu sehen sind Funde aus ägyptischer, minoisch-mykenischer, griechischer, etruskischer und römischer Zeit.

Neben dem berühmten »Kasseler Apoll« zeigen zahlreiche Objekte der griechischen Vasenmalerei Szenen der antiken Götterwelt. Waffen, Gefäße und Bronzefiguren zeugen von der Kunstfertigkeit der Etrusker. Bedeutend sind auch die Funde der Kasseler Grabung auf der Insel Samos aus dem Jahr 1894. Die Objekte der römischen Kaiserzeit gehören größtenteils zum historischen Sammlungsbestand, darunter bedeutende Marmorporträts und viele Gegenstände des Alltagslebens. In den vergangenen Jahren konnte zudem die Sammlung griechischer und römischer Münzen ausgebaut werden.

Eifelmuseum Mayen

Small collection of roman artifacts in the Eifel museum, Mayen, Genovevo Burg.

Limburgs Museum

Het Limburgs Museum in Venlo is een cultuurhistorisch museum, dat verhalen van Limburgers vertelt en verbeeldt. De collectie van het Limburgs Museum verbeeldt de verhalen en nodigt uit tot interactie.

Het museum staat op een plek waar eeuwenlang de stadsmuren en vestingwerken van de stad Venlo lagen. Nadat deze in 1870 gesloopt waren werd het terrein gebruikt als rangeeremplacement voor particuliere spoorwegmaatschappijen, die via Venlo een belangrijke internationale verbinding onderhielden. Aan de zijde van het station is tevens het oudst in Nederland bewaard gebleven tankstation terug te vinden. Dit Esso tankstation werd gebouwd in 1933.

De vaste collectie omvat vondsten uit heel Limburg, vanaf de prehistorie, de romeinse tijd en de middeleeuwen tot het Venlo van heden.