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Cordoba Alcazar

CORDALC2240Alcázar de los Reyes Cristianos MOSAICS HALL

In a hall which housed the former chapel of the Inquisitions there are exhibited a magnificent collection of Roman mosaic art from the 2nd and 3rd century AD. The collection was discovered under Corredera Square in the city in 1959 and once belonged to a wealthy Roman Mansion.CORDALC2182CORDALC2180 CORDALC2178 CORDALC2177a CORDALC2177 CORDALC2176 CORDALC2175 CORDALC9061 CORDALC9054 CORDALC9052 CORDALC2183June 2013, Canon G1 X

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Museo dell’ Accademia Etrusca e città di Cortona

CORTONA_IMG_0529The Etruscan Academy Museum of the city of Cortona

MAEC’s history stretches back to 1727 when the Accademia Etrusca (Etruscan Academy) was founded; the academy’s statutory goals included the dissemination of historical and artistic culture through key-tools such as the Library and the Museum both of which were public right from the earliest stages; over the past three centuries the Museum has undergone extraordinary development all the way to its final re-arrangement in 2008 The museum currently consists of two main sections respectively devoted to the Accademia Etrusca and the Etruscan and Roman city of Cortona; the former section accommodates materials providing a unique testimony to the life and continuing efforts of the best known cultural institution in town; such materials range from the earliest bequests from academicians in the 1700 and 1800s to materials acquired over the centuries: the most valuable pieces – real “symbols” of the Cortonese culture – include the Etruscan bronze lamp, the so-called Musa Polimnia, a fine collection of Etruscan and Roman ceramics and bronzes as well as the Corbelli collection including materials from the Egyptian civilization; more recent materials include an imposing collection of art objects and furnishings formerly owned by the Tommasi-Baldelli family, one of the most prominent families in town, as well as a series of works by Cortona-born painter Gino Severini, one of the founders of Futurism, bequeathed to the town of Cortona by the Maestro himself. Other exhibits include archaeological finds from the city and its surroundings providing a link to the modern section devoted to the development of the latter.

CORTONA_IMG_0618After a first room providing an insight into local paleontology the subsequent rooms house orientalizing and archaic grave-goods from burials in the Valle Tiberina and the Valdichiana, at the edge of the Cortona sphere of influence, and, remarkably, valuable finds from Etruscan burials located in the close surroundings of Cortona, the so-called “Meloni” of Sodo and Camucia. An accurate reconstructive image is provided for all displayed finds including the well-known jewels found in the 1990s as well as sacred structures associated with the cult and burial of the dead. Particularly interesting is the display of grave-goods recently uncovered from a series of orientalizing circular burials affording a new and fascinating insight into the remotest Cortonese history. Significant testimony to the town’s great Hellenistic development is provided by a bronze tablet bearing one of the longest known inscriptions in the Etruscan language as well as by finds from suburban sanctuaries and monumental burials. The tour ends with exhibits from the Roman period (a period of extraordinary complexity and high-profile) including finds from the large Roman villa (currently under excavation) unearthed in Ossaia as well as from the vast network of roads connecting the major centres in ancient times. The tour then resumes, ensuring an ideal continuity with the lower section, with the medieval section housed on the upper floors devoted to the Accademia.

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Museo archeologico Arezzo

AREZZO_IMG_9830The Museo Archeologico is housed in the former Olivetan convent, founded in 1323, that was built directly over the ruins of the Roman Amphitheatre: hence, the curios curved design.
Damages by bombs during the Second World War, in its modern re-systemisation it offers a picture of ancient history of the city and the territory.
The Crater of Euphronios, an Attic vase of the end of the 6th c. BC, is remarkable: it testified to the wealth and high cultural level reached during that age by the wealthy classes of the Arezzo area, who were in a position to appreciate and acquire a work realised by one of the greatest pottery decorators of the age. The crater is a capacious vase with a wide mouth, made for mixing wine and water in accordance with the Greek usage of the symposium: the presence of such a precious vase and one for such a specific use indicates that the practice of the symposium was present in the high society of the area, as an occasion of encounter and also as a stutus symbol.
Of great artistic quality and also linked to the symposium is the Attic amphora of the school of the Painter of Dinos from Casalta (end of the 5th c. BC). Together with the somewath older Attic stamnos of the Painter of Danae from Alberoro, it testifies to the continuing wealth of the land-owner classes of the fertile Valdichiana. It is very probable that these and other Attic products were imported through the Greco-Etruscan port of Spina, on the Po delta, and from there arrived overland in Arezzo across the Apennine passes.
AREZZO_IMG_9751The large disk inscribed in stone that can be seen in the following rooms constitutes an additional indication of the vitality of these activities: it comes from the Estruscan sanctuary of Pieve a Socana, in the Casentino, is datable to the 5th c. BC, and bears an Etruscan inscription that says it was offered by an exponent of a gens (family) the founder of which had himself called ”the Greek”.
Of great interest is the collection of Aretine ceramics, the so-called ”coralline”: a typical product of the city which, between the 1th century BC and 1th century AD, flooded the market of the entire Roman empire with clay vases that imitaded those made of metal (silver) in shape, relief decoration, polish and perhaps even sound.
In the display cabinets can be seen the punches and dies utilised for realising the mass-production of these items: industrial products, but of extraordinary refinement.
The fragments of Arezzo ceramics decorated in relief were sougth after by artists already in the Middle Ages, and Donatello probably had the idea of his stiacciato relief from them.
The Toga-clad Fifure (1th c. BC) also speaks of the Roman city. It decorated a monumental tomb recently discovered along Via Vittorio Veneto.
Lastly, a Chrysographic Male Portrait deserves careful examination: this is a miniature realised on very thin gold and silver foil, and sealed between two pieces of glass (third quarter of the 3nd c. AD).AREZZO_IMG_9776AREZZO_IMG_9799

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AREZZO_IMG_9802AREZZO_IMG_9804AREZZO_IMG_9805AREZZO_IMG_9806AREZZO_IMG_9808AREZZO_IMG_9811AREZZO_IMG_9812AREZZO_IMG_9813AREZZO_IMG_9814AREZZO_IMG_9819AREZZO_IMG_9824


AREZZO_IMG_9826AREZZO_IMG_9762AREZZO_IMG_9764AREZZO_IMG_9765AREZZO_IMG_9768AREZZO_IMG_9769AREZZO_IMG_9770AREZZO_IMG_9771AREZZO_IMG_9775AREZZO_IMG_9830Museo Archeologico is housed in the former Olivetan convent, founded in 1323, that was built directly over the ruins of the Roman Amphitheatre: hence, the curios curved design.

Damages by bombs during the Second World War, in its modern re-systemisation it offers a picture of ancient history of the city and the territory.

The Crater of Euphronios, an Attic vase of the end of the 6th c. BC, is remarkable: it testified to the wealth and high cultural level reached during that age by the wealthy classes of the Arezzo area, who were in a position to appreciate and acquire a work realised by one of the greatest pottery decorators of the age. The crater is a capacious vase with a wide mouth, made for mixing wine and water in accordance with the Greek usage of the symposium: the presence of such a precious vase and one for such a specific use indicates that the practice of the symposium was present in the high society of the area, as an occasion of encounter and also as a stutus symbol.

Of great artistic quality and also linked to the symposium is the Attic amphora of the school of the Painter of Dinos from Casalta (end of the 5th c. BC). Together with the somewath older Attic stamnos of the Painter of Danae from Alberoro, it testifies to the continuing wealth of the land-owner classes of the fertile Valdichiana. It is very probable that these and other Attic products were imported through the Greco-Etruscan port of Spina, on the Po delta, and from there arrived overland in Arezzo across the Apennine passes.

The large disk inscribed in stone that can be seen in the following rooms constitutes an additional indication of the vitality of these activities: it comes from the Estruscan sanctuary of Pieve a Socana, in the Casentino, is datable to the 5th c. BC, and bears an Etruscan inscription that says it was offered by an exponent of a gens (family) the founder of which had himself called ”the Greek”.
Of great interest is the collection of Aretine ceramics, the so-called ”coralline”: a typical product of the city which, between the 1th century BC and 1th century AD, flooded the market of the entire Roman empire with clay vases that imitaded those made of metal (silver) in shape, relief decoration, polish and perhaps even sound.

AREZZO_IMG_9755In the display cabinets can be seen the punches and dies utilised for realising the mass-production of these items: industrial products, but of extraordinary refinement.

The fragments of Arezzo ceramics decorated in relief were sougth after by artists already in the Middle Ages, and Donatello probably had the idea of his stiacciato relief from them.

The Toga-clad Fifure (1th c. BC) also speaks of the Roman city. It decorated a monumental tomb recently discovered along Via Vittorio Veneto.

Lastly, a Chrysographic Male Portrait deserves careful examination: this is a miniature realised on very thin gold and silver foil, and sealed between two pieces of glass.

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Arezzo

AREZZO_IMG_9830The Museo Archeologico is housed in the former Olivetan convent, founded in 1323, that was built directly over the ruins of the Roman Amphitheatre: hence, the curios curved design.
Damages by bombs during the Second World War, in its modern re-systemisation it offers a picture of ancient history of the city and the territory.
The Crater of Euphronios, an Attic vase of the end of the 6th c. BC, is remarkable: it testified to the wealth and high cultural level reached during that age by the wealthy classes of the Arezzo area, who were in a position to appreciate and acquire a work realised by one of the greatest pottery decorators of the age. The crater is a capacious vase with a wide mouth, made for mixing wine and water in accordance with the Greek usage of the symposium: the presence of such a precious vase and one for such a specific use indicates that the practice of the symposium was present in the high society of the area, as an occasion of encounter and also as a stutus symbol.
Of great artistic quality and also linked to the symposium is the Attic amphora of the school of the Painter of Dinos from Casalta (end of the 5th c. BC). Together with the somewath older Attic stamnos of the Painter of Danae from Alberoro, it testifies to the continuing wealth of the land-owner classes of the fertile Valdichiana. It is very probable that these and other Attic products were imported through the Greco-Etruscan port of Spina, on the Po delta, and from there arrived overland in Arezzo across the Apennine passes.
AREZZO_IMG_9751The large disk inscribed in stone that can be seen in the following rooms constitutes an additional indication of the vitality of these activities: it comes from the Estruscan sanctuary of Pieve a Socana, in the Casentino, is datable to the 5th c. BC, and bears an Etruscan inscription that says it was offered by an exponent of a gens (family) the founder of which had himself called ”the Greek”.
Of great interest is the collection of Aretine ceramics, the so-called ”coralline”: a typical product of the city which, between the 1th century BC and 1th century AD, flooded the market of the entire Roman empire with clay vases that imitaded those made of metal (silver) in shape, relief decoration, polish and perhaps even sound.
In the display cabinets can be seen the punches and dies utilised for realising the mass-production of these items: industrial products, but of extraordinary refinement.
The fragments of Arezzo ceramics decorated in relief were sougth after by artists already in the Middle Ages, and Donatello probably had the idea of his stiacciato relief from them.
The Toga-clad Fifure (1th c. BC) also speaks of the Roman city. It decorated a monumental tomb recently discovered along Via Vittorio Veneto.
Lastly, a Chrysographic Male Portrait deserves careful examination: this is a miniature realised on very thin gold and silver foil, and sealed between two pieces of glass (third quarter of the 3nd c. AD).

Museo Archeologico AREZZO_IMG_9764
Roman Amfitheatre AREZZO_IMG_9757

 

 

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Fiesole museum

FIESOLEMUS_IMG_1818Musei di Fiesole
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Fiesole

Fiesole  is a town and comune of the province of Florence in the Italian region of Tuscany, on a scenic height above Florence, 8 kilometres (5 mi) northeast of that city. Fiesole (Etruscan Viesul, Viśl, Vipsul) was probably founded in the 9th-8th century BC, as it was an important member of the Etruscan confederacy, as may be seen from the remains of its ancient walls.

The first recorded mention on the town dates to 283 BC, when the town, then known as Faesulae, was conquered by the Romans. In pagan antiquity it was the seat of a famous school of augurs, and every year twelve young men were sent thither from Rome to study the art of divination. Sulla colonized it with veterans, who afterwards, under the leadership of Gaius Mallius, supported the cause of Catilina.Fiesole was the scene of Stilicho’s great victory over the Germanic hordes of the Vandals and Suebi under Radagaisus in 406. During the Gothic War (536-53) the town was several times besieged. In 539 Justinus, the Byzantine general, captured it and razed its fortifications.

It was an independent town for several centuries in the early Middle Ages, no less powerful than Florence in the valley below, and many wars arose between them; in 1010 and 1025 Fiesole was sacked by the Florentines, before it was conquered by Florence in 1125, and its leading families obliged to take up their residence in Florence. Dante reflects this rivalry in his Divine Comedy by referring to “the beasts of Fiesole.” (Inferno XV.73). By the 14th century, rich Florentines had countryside villas in Fiesole, and one of them is the setting of the frame narrative of the Decameron. Boccaccio’s poem Il Ninfale fiesolano is a mythological account of the origins of the community.[5] Robert Browning mentions “sober pleasant Fiesole” several times in his poem “Andrea Del Sarto”.

FIESOLE_IMG_1819Roman Theatre

FIESOLEMUS_IMG_1818Museum

 

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Volterra Etruscan Museum Guarnacci

Everyone loves Volterra right now thanks to New Moon, but before that, the Etruscans loved it thanks to its rich store of iron. The Guarnacci museum, which originated as a private collection, has a very large number of small urns that are arranged on shelves that line every room. This can get excessive, and the curators know it, so they came up with a most interesting museological solution for the upstairs (first floor). They covered the walls with green panels that allow you to see only select works; other pieces are set up in glass cases in the middle of the room.
Most important works: This museum contains two important works in totally different styles. The Ombra della Sera is a tall bronze shadow figure with a young boy’s head; it may have been a fertility figure, thrust into the ground. The other piece to note is the terracotta funerary urn of a couple, Urna degli Sposi, that is highly detailed and doesn’t miss a wrinkle. The Romans in fact didn’t approve of the way that the Etruscans invited their wives to their drinking parties; the Etruscans were rather more egalitarian, as can be seen by this double funerary monument for a couple that has lived a long life together

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Matera museum

MATERA_IMG_4547The area of what is now Matera has been settled since the Palaeolithic. The city was allegedly founded by the Romans in the 3rd century BC, with the name of Matheola after the consul Lucius Caecilius Metellus. In AD 664 Matera was conquered by the Lombards and became part of the Duchy of Benevento. In the 7th and 8th centuries the nearby grottos were colonized by both Benedictine and Basilian monastic institutions. The 9th and 10th centuries were characterized by the struggle between the Byzantines and the German emperors, including Louis II, who partially destroyed the city. After the settlement of the Normans in Apulia, Matera was ruled by William Iron-Arm from 1043.

MATERA_IMG_4538The National Archaeological Museum of Matera is the oldest museum of Basilicata. Established in 1911, with a national law, by the will of Senator Domenico Ridola, who donated it to the State its important archaeological collections, presents the important archaeological sites found in the area of ​​Matera.
As for the pre-history, the most significant findings regarding some entrenched villages Neolithic, which was also recognized in this area, starting from the sixth millennium BC, the introduction of agriculture and consequently the structuring of permanent settlements, according to defined templates in the Eastern Mediterranean.
For the most recent phases of prehistory and the phase VI-IV century BC documentation of interest is related to Timmari, located a short drive from Matera. From this center come, among other things, some funeraral objects of the fourth century BC characterized by bronze armor and monumental red-figure vases and numerous votive statues, fine workmanship, found in a sacred area.MATERA_IMG_0285MATERA_IMG_0296 MATERA_IMG_0294 MATERA_IMG_0293 MATERA_IMG_0292 MATERA_IMG_0291 MATERA_IMG_0290 MATERA_IMG_0289 MATERA_IMG_0288 MATERA_IMG_0286 MATERA_IMG_0284 MATERA_IMG_0283 MATERA_IMG_0282 MATERA_IMG_0281 MATERA_IMG_4545 MATERA_IMG_4544 MATERA_IMG_4543 MATERA_IMG_4542 MATERA_IMG_4541MATERA_IMG_4539MATERA_IMG_4540