The Vatican Museums (Italian: Musei Vaticani) are the museums of the Vatican City and are located within the city’s boundaries. They display works from the immense collection built up by the Popes throughout the centuries including some of the most renowned classical sculptures and most important masterpieces of Renaissance art in the world.
Pope Julius II founded the museums in the early 16th century. The Sistine Chapel with its ceiling decorated by Michelangelo and the Stanze di Raffaello decorated by Raphael are on the visitor route through the Vatican Museums. In 2013, they were visited by 6 million people, which combined makes it the 3rd most visited art museum in the world.
There are 54 galleries, or sale, in total, with the Sistine Chapel, notably, being the very last sala within the Museum. It is one of the largest museums in the world.
The Vatican Museums trace their origin to one marble sculpture, purchased 500 years ago: the sculpture of Laocoön and his Sons was discovered 14 January 1506, in a vineyard near the basilica of Santa Maria Maggiore in Rome. Pope Julius II sent Giuliano da Sangallo and Michelangelo Buonarroti, who were working at the Vatican, to examine the discovery. On their recommendation, the pope immediately purchased the sculpture from the vineyard owner. The pope put the sculpture of Laocoön and his sons on public display at the Vatican exactly one month after its discovery.
The Museum Christianum was founded by Benedict XIV, and some of the Vatican collections formed the Lateran Museum, which Pius IX founded by decree in 1854. The Museums celebrated their 500th anniversary in October 2006 by permanently opening the excavations of a Vatican Hill necropolis to the public.
The group of museums includes several sculpture museums surrounding the Cortile del Belvedere.
It is in the Classical style and has a wide arched roof with skylights. The colour scheme is blue-grey and white with a polychrome marble floor. The walls of each side of the gallery have a row of large niches in which stand marble statues. Between the niches are plinths supporting smaller portrait sculptures.
The New Wing, Braccio Nuovo built by Raffaele Stern
A marble statue of the Emperor Augustus. He stands with one arm raised as if in command. Augustus is depicted as a man of about thirty five, with short hair and clean shaven. He wears Roman military uniform of a breast plate, leather accoutrements and a cloak over a short tunic. The breastplate is decorated with symbolic figures. As a work of art, the statue displays high technical mastery.
The Prima Porta Augustus
The Museum takes it’s name from two popes, Clement XIV and Pius VI, the pope who brought the museum into completion. Clement XV came up with the idea of creating a new museum in innocent VIII’s Belvedere palace and started the refurbishment work.
Pope Clement XIV founded the Pio-Clementino museum in 1771, and originally it contained the Renaissance and antique works. The museum and collection were enlarged by Clement’s successor Pius VI. Today, the museum houses works of Greek and Roman sculpture. Some notable galleries are:
Greek Cross Gallery: (Sala a Croce Greca): with the porphyri sarcophagi of Constance and Saint Helen, daughter and mother of Constantine the Great.
Sala Rotonda: shaped like a miniature Pantheon, the room has impressive ancient mosaics on the floors, and ancient statues lining the perimeter, including a gilded bronze statue of Hercules.
Gallery of the Statues (Galleria delle Statue): as its name implies, holds various important statues, including Sleeping Ariadne and the bust of Menander. It also contains the Barberini Candelabra.
Cabinet of the Masks (Gabinetto delle Maschere): The name comes from the mosaic on the floor of the gallery, found in Villa Adriana, which shows ancient theater masks. Along the walls, several famous statues are shown including the Three Graces.One wove the thread of life,second nurtured it, third cut it. They were created by Zeus ( ROMAN FORM:Jupiter)
Sala delle Muse: Houses the statue group of Apollo and the nine muses, uncovered in a Roman villa near Tivoli in 1774, as well as and statues by important ancient Greek or Roman sculptors. the center piece is Belvedere Torso, revered by Michelangelo and other Renaissance men.
Sala degli Animali: So named because of the many ancient statues of animals.
This museum is named after Pope Pius VII (whose last name was Chiaramonti before his election as pope), who founded it in the early 19th century. The museum consists of a large arched gallery in which sides are exhibited several statues, sarcophaguses and friezes. The New Wing, Braccio Nuovo built by Raffaele Stern, houses important statues like The Prima Porta Augustus, Doryphorus, and The River Nile. Galeria Lapidaria is another part of Chiaramonti museum, with more than 3,000 stone tablets and inscriptions, which is the world’s greatest collection of its kind. However, it is opened only by special permission, usually for reasons of study.
Museo Gregoriano Etrusco
Founded by Pope Gregory XVI in 1836, this museum has eight galleries and houses important Etruscan pieces, coming from archaeological excavations. The pieces include: vases, sarcophagus, bronzes and the Guglielmi Collection.
Museo Gregoriano Egiziano
This museum houses a grand collection of Ancient Egyptian material. Such material includes papyruses, the Grassi Collection, animal mummies, and reproductions of the famous Book of the Dead.
|Vatican Museum buildings|
|Vatican Museum Egypt collection|
|Vatican Museum mosaics|
|Vatican Museum busts|
|Vatican Museum paintings|
|Vatican Museum formal statues|
September 2013, Canon G1 X, Canon S90
The museum is displaying original antiquities and other objects as one of the sources of Western tradition to put the present in a culture-historical perspective by means of insight in and understanding of the past.
The Allard Pierson Museum is the Archaeology Museum of the University of Amsterdam, and shows the significance of ancient civilizations to contemporary European culture n a challenging way. We do this for the widest possible interested public, on the basis of an archaeological top collection in collaboration with talented students, excellent researchers and fellow institutions.
The ancient civilisations of ancient Egypt, the Near East, the Greek World, Etruria and the Roman Empire are revived in this museum. Art-objects and utensils, dating from 4000 B.C. till 1000 A.D. give a good impression of everyday-life.
Het Allard Pierson Museum is het archeologisch museum van de Universiteit van Amsterdam. Het museum werd in 1934 geopend. De collectie bestond toen uit ca. 5000 oudheden, afkomstig uit de verzameling van dr. C.W. Lunsingh Scheurleer. Deze collectie was aangekocht door de Allard Pierson Stichting met steun van de Vereniging Rembrandt en vele particulieren en geschonken aan de Universiteit. Inmiddels telt het museum meer dan 16.000 voorwerpen, waarvan een belangrijk deel is geschonken door particulieren.
In het Allard Pierson Museum komen de antieke beschavingen uit het Oude Egypte, het Nabije Oosten, de Griekse wereld, Etrurië en het Romeinse Rijk opnieuw tot leven.
Kunst- en gebruiksvoorwerpen uit de periode van 5000 voor Chr. tot 500 na Chr. geven een beeld van het dagelijks leven, mythologie en godsdienst in de antieke Oudheid.
Allard Pierson (Amsterdam, 8 april 1831 – Almen, 27 mei 1896) was een Nederlandse predikant, theoloog, geschied- en taalkundige. Allard Pierson was lid van de familie Pierson en een zoon van de koopman Jan Lodewijk Gregory Pierson en de schrijfster Ida Oyens (lid van de familie Oijens). Hij kwam uit een aanzienlijke Amsterdamse koopmansfamilie, die tot de kringen rond het Réveil behoorde. Hij was een broer van Nicolaas Pierson en Hendrik Pierson; hij was een zwager van de kunstschilder Herman ten Kate die met zijn zus getrouwd was. Pierson trouwde met Pauline Hermine Elizabeth Gildemeester (Amsterdam, 7 maart 1831 – Scheveningen, 6 september 1900). Uit dit huwelijk werden zes kinderen geboren, onder wie Jan Lodewijk Pierson sr.. Zij bewoonden Huize Velhorst in Almen (vlak bij Zutphen), waar Pierson op 65-jarige leeftijd is overleden.
Pierson werd predikant te Leuven, maar legde dit ambt neer vanwege zijn modernistische inzichten. In 1870 werd hij hoogleraar theologie te Heidelberg. Pierson was van 1877-1895 de eerste hoogleraar in kunstgeschiedenis, esthetica en moderne talen en letteren aan de Universiteit van Amsterdam. Het archeologie museum van de Universiteit van Amsterdam is naar hem vernoemd omdat hij in 1877 de eerste hoogleraar archeologie aan de Universiteit van Amsterdam werd. Hij behoorde tot de fijnzinnigste geesten uit het Nederlandse culturele leven van de 19e eeuw. Tijdens zijn hoogleraarschap in Amsterdam legde hij een verzameling gipsafgietsels aan. Het Allard Pierson Museum van de Universiteit van Amsterdam draagt zijn naam.
|Sicily and the Sea|
Amsterdam, 2012-2015. Canon S90, S95, G1 X
Neferneferuaten Nefertiti (ca. 1370 – ca. 1330 BC) was an Egyptian queen and the Great Royal Wife (chief consort) of Akhenaten, an Egyptian Pharaoh. Nefertiti and her husband were known for a religious revolution, in which they worshiped one god only, Aten, or the sun disc. Akhenaten and Nefertiti were responsible for the creation of a whole new religion which changed the ways of religion within Egypt. With her husband, she reigned at what was arguably the wealthiest period of Ancient Egyptian history. Some scholars believe that Nefertiti ruled briefly as Neferneferuaten after her husband’s death and before the accession of Tutankhamun, although this identification is a matter of ongoing debate.
She was made famous by her bust, now in Berlin’s Neues Museum. The bust is one of the most copied works of ancient Egypt. It was attributed to the sculptor Thutmose, and it was found in his workshop. The bust is notable for exemplifying the understanding Ancient Egyptians had regarding realistic facial proportions.
The Altes Museum (German for Old Museum) is a museum building on Museum Island in Berlin, Germany. Since restoration work in 2010/11, it houses the Antikensammlung (antiquities collection) of the Berlin State Museums. The museum building was built between 1823 and 1830 by the architect Karl Friedrich Schinkel in the neoclassical style to house the Prussian royal family’s art collection. The historic, protected building counts among the most distinguished in neoclassicism and is a high point of Schinkel’s career. Until 1845, it was called the Königliches Museum (Royal Museum).
The Neues Museum (“New Museum”) is a museum in Berlin, Germany, located to the north of the Altes Museum (Old Museum) on Museum Island.It was built between 1843 and 1855 according to plans by Friedrich August Stüler, a student of Karl Friedrich Schinkel. The museum was closed at the beginning of World War II in 1939, and was heavily damaged during the bombing of Berlin. The rebuilding was overseen by the English architect David Chipperfield. The museum officially reopened in October 2009. Exhibits include the Egyptian and Prehistory and Early History collections, as it did before the war. The artifacts it houses include the iconic bust of the Egyptian queen Nefertiti.
The Pergamon Museum (German: Pergamonmuseum) is situated on the Museum Island in Berlin. The site was designed by Alfred Messel and Ludwig Hoffmann and was constructed in twenty years, from 1910 to 1930. The Pergamon Museum houses original-sized, reconstructed monumental buildings such as the Pergamon Altar and the Market Gate of Miletus, all consisting of parts transported from Turkey. The museum is subdivided into the antiquity collection, the Middle East museum, and the museum of Islamic art. By the time the Kaiser-Friedrich-Museum on Museum Island (today the Bodemuseum) had opened, it was clear that the museum was not large enough to host all of the art and archaeological treasures excavated under German supervision. Excavations were underway in Babylon, Uruk, Assur, Miletus, Priene and Egypt, and objects from these sites could not be properly displayed within the existing German museum system. As early as 1907, Wilhelm von Bode, the director of the Kaiser-Friedrich-Wilhelm-Museum had plans to build a new museum nearby to accommodate ancient architecture, German post-antiquity art, and Middle Eastern and Islamic art.
Visited in March 2009 (Pergamon, Altes Museum) and November 2009 (the re opened Neues Museum).
Photos made with A710IS and Canon 1000D.
Toetanchamon, zijn graf en zijn schatten. Deze reizende expositie over de legendarische farao was van 29 november 2012 tot en met 5 mei 2013 te zien in Amsterdam EXPO, het Nederlandse museum voor reizende tentoonstellingen.
Toetanchamon, zijn graf en zijn schatten reconstrueert de schatten uit de tijd van de jonge farao Toetanchamon. Drie van de grafkamers zijn identiek nagebouwd op basis van de schetsen en notities van Howard Carter en beelden door Harry Burton, de fotograaf van de expeditie. De kamers bevatten replica’s van de meest opvallende voorwerpen zoals juwelen, amuletten, koffers, stoelen, wapens, een sensationele strijdwagen in goud, grote vergulde schrijnen en het beroemde dodenmasker. Alle objecten zijn zorgvuldig vervaardigd door de beste Egyptische ambachtslieden en goedgekeurd door internationaal gerenommeerde wetenschappers en egyptologen. Multimediapresentaties laten de bezoeker kennismaken met de culturele en religieuze wereld van het Oude Egypte. Negentig jaar na de oorspronkelijke ontdekking gaat de graftombe van Toetanchamon opnieuw open, levensecht in het museum Amsterdam EXPO.